After more than 30 years of relative stability of their administrative organization, French and Tunisian governments have declared their intention to engage a strong reorganization of their various administrative levels. Indeed they are considered as no more adapted to current state of economy and society. Despite the fact that this reform are enhanced in different historical and political paths, projects presented by France and Tunisia offer a number of common points : reducing the number of administrative levels, increasing the size of regions, according specific status to metropolitan areas for example. Our research hypothesis is the fact that these similarities do not appear by chance. On the contrary, they are likely to reveal the emergence of new models of governance in democratic states submitted to the contradictory choices of policy oriented either to economic competition or territorial cohesion.